Selected Publications

General Near Infrared Spectroscopy

  • Ferrari M, Mottola L, Quaresima V. Principles, techniques and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy. Can J Appl Physiol. 2004;29:463-87.
  • Hoshi Y. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy: current status and future prospects. J Biomed Optics. 2007;12:062106.
  • Jobsis FF. Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters. Science. 1977;198:1264-7.
  • Mancini DM, Bolinger L, Li H, Kendrick K, Chance B, Wilson J. Validation of near infrared spectroscopy in humans. J Appl Physiol. 1994;77: 2740-7.
  • Molavi B, Dumont G, Shadgan B, Macnab A. Attenuation of motion artifact in near infrared spectroscopy signals using a wavelet based method. Proc. SPIE. Vol. 7890, 78900M, 2011. doi:10.1117/12.875741.
  • Molavi B, Dumont G, Shadgan B. Motion artifact removal from muscle NIR spectroscopy measurements, Electrical and Computer Engineering. 2010 doi:10.1109/CCECE.2010.5575241.
  • Muehlemann T, Haensse D, Wolf M. Wireless miniaturized in-vivo near infrared imaging. Opt Express. 2008;16:10323-30.
  • Niwayama M, Hamaoka T, Lin L, Shao J, Kudo N, Katoh C, Yamamato K. Quantitative muscle oxygenation measurement using NIRS with correction for the influence of a fat layer: comparison of oxygen consumption rates with measurements by other techniques. Proc. SPIE, Vol. 3911, 256 (2000); doi:10.1117/12.384911.
  • Shiga T, Yamamoto K, Tanabe K, Nakase Y, Chance B. Study of an algorithm based on model experiments and diffusion theory for a portable tissue oximeters. J Biomed Optics. 1997;2:154-61.
  • Suzuki S, Takasaki S, Ozaki T, Kobayashi Y. A tissue oxygenation monitor using NIR spatially resolved spectroscopy, Proc. SPIE 1999;3597:582–92.
  • van Beekvelt MCP, Borghuis MS, van Engelen BGM, Wevers RA, Colier WNJM. Adipose tissue thickness affects in vivo quantitative near-infrared spectroscopy in human skeletal muscle. Clin Sci. 2001a;101:21-8.
  • van der Sluijs MC, Colier NJM, Houston RJF, Oesburg B. A new and highly sensitive continuous wave near infrared spectrophotometer with multiple detectors. Proc SPIE. 1997;3194:63-72.
  • Vo TV, Hammer PE, Hoimes ML, Nadgir S, Fantini S. Mathematical model for the hemodynamic response to venous occlusion measured with near-infrared spectroscopy in the human forearm. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2007;54:573-84.
  • Wassenaar EB, van den Brand JG. Reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy in people with dark skin pigmentation. J Clin Monit Comput. 2005;19:195–9.


  • Buunk G, van der Hoeven JG, Meinders AE. A comparison of near-infrared spectroscopy and jugular bulb oximetry in comatose patients resuscitated from a cardiac arrest. Anaesthesia. 1998;53:13-9.
  • Steinbrink J, Fischer T, Kuppe H. Relevance of depth resolution for cerebral blood flow monitoring by near-infrared spectroscopic bolus tracking during cardiopulmonary bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006;132:1172-8.
  • Yoshitani K, Kawaguchi M, Okuno T, Kanoda T, Ohnishi Y, Kuro M, Nishizawa M. Measurements of optical pathlength using phase-resolved spectroscopy in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesth Analg. 2007;104:341-6.

Clinical Near Infrared Spectroscopy

  • Gagnon RE, Macnab AJ. Near Infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the clinical setting – An adjunct to monitoring during diagnosis and treatment. Spectroscopy 2005;19:221-33.
  • Macnab AJ. Biomedical Applications of Near Infrared Spectroscopy. In Barth A, Haris PI. Biological and Biomedical Infrared Spectroscopy Volume 2. 1st ed. IOS Press, 2009:355 – 402.
  • Macnab AJ, Shadgan B. “Biomedical applications of wireless continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy”. Biomedical Spectroscopy & Imaging, 2012:1(3);205–222. doi:10.3233/BSI-2012-0018.
  • Quaresima V, Lepanto R, Ferrari M. The use of near infrared spectroscopy in sports medicine. J Sport Med Phys Fitness. 2003;43:1-13.
  • Rolfe P. In vivo near-infrared spectroscopy. An Rev Biomed Eng. 2000;2:715-54.
  • Shadgan B, Molavi B, Reid WD, Dumont G, Macnab AJ. Do radio frequencies of medical instruments common in the operating room interfere with near-infrared spectroscopy signals? Proc SPIE. 2010a; Vol.755512:doi:10.1117/12.842712.
  • Wolf M, Ferrari M, Quaresima V. Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications. J Biomed Optics. 2007;12:062104.
  • Macnab A, Shadgan B, Janssen P Rurak D. “Fetal oxygenation measurement using wireless near infrared spectroscopy”. Proc. SPIE 8229, 822902 (2012). doi:10.1117/12.906243.

Critical Care Medicine

  • Petrova A, Mehta R. Near-infrared spectroscopy in the detection of regional tissue oxygenation during hypoxic events in preterm infants undergoing critical care. Ped Crit Care Med. 2006;7:449-54.
  • Ward KR, Ivatury RR, Barbee RW, Terner J, Pittman R, Torres Filho IP, Spiess B. Near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of the trauma patient: a technology review. Resuscitation. 2006;68:27-44.
  • Wyatt JS, Cope M, Delpy DT, Wray S, Reynolds EOR. Quantification of cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics in sick newborn infants by near infrared spectrophotometry. Lancet. 1986;2:1063-6.

Exercise Science / Kinesiology

  • Bhambhani Y, Buckley S, Susaki T. Muscle oxygenation trends during constant work rate cycle exercise in men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31:90-8.
  • Boushel R, Piantadosi CA. Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring muscle oxygenation. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. 2000;168:615-22.
  • Boushel R, Langberg H, Olesen J, Nowak M, Simonsen L, Bulow J, Kjaer M. Regional blood flow during exercise in humans measured by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green. J Appl Physiol. 2000;89:1868–1878.
  • Boushel R, Langberg H, Olesen J, Gonzales-Alonzo J, Bulow J, Kjaer M. Monitoring tissue oxygen availability with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in health and disease. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2001;11:213-22.
  • Boushel R, Langberg H, Gemmer C, Olesen J, Crameri R, Scheede C, Sander M, Kjaer M. Combined inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandins reduces human skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise. J Physiol. 2002;543:691-8.
  • Chance B, Dait MT, Zhang C, Hamaoka T Hagerman F. Recovery from exercise-induced desaturation in the quadriceps muscles of elite competitive rowers. Am J Physiol. 1992; 262: C766–C775.
  • Colier WNJM, Meeuwsen IB, Degens H and Oeseburg, B. Determination of oxygen consumption in muscle during exercise using near infrared spectroscopy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1995;107:151-155.
  • Costes F, Barthelemy JC, Feasson L, Busso T, Geyssant A, Deni C. Comparison of muscle near-infrared spectroscopy and femoral blood gases during steady-state exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol. 1996;80:1345–50.
  • De Blasi RA, Ferrari M, Natali A, Conti G, Mega A, Gasparetto A. Noninvasive measurement of forearm blood flow and oxygen consumption by near-infrared spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol. 1994;76:1388-93.
  • De Ruiter CJ, Maas EA, Wesseling MG, de Haan A. Knee extensor fatigue threshold is related to whole-body VO2max. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44(7):1366-74.
  • Dupont G, Moalla W, Matran R, Berthoin, S. Effect of Short Recovery Intensities on the Performance during Two Wingate Tests. Med Sc Sports Exerc 2007; 39(7):1170-1176.
  • Ferrari M, Binzoni T, Quaresima V. Oxidative metabolism in muscle. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1997;352(1354):677-83.
  • Hernández A, McDonald JR, Lai N, Gladden LB. A prior bout of contractions speeds VO2 and blood flow on-kinetics and reduces the VO2 slow-component amplitude in canine skeletal muscle contracting in situ. J Appl Physiol. 2010;108(5):1169-76.
  • Hesford C, Cardinale M, Laing S, Cooper CE. NIRS Measurements with Elite Speed Skaters: Comparison Between the Ice Rink and the Laboratory. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;765:81-6.
  • Homma S, Eda H, Ogasawara S, Kagaya A. Near-infrared estimation of O2 supply and consumption in forearm muscles working at varying intensity. J Appl Physiol. 1996; 80:1279 -84.
  • Kell RT, Bhambhani Y. Relationship between erector spinae muscle oxygenation via in vivo near infrared spectroscopy and static endurance time in healthy males. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008;102:243-50.
  • Kime R, Hamaoka T, Sako T, Murakami M, Homma T, Katsumura T,Chance B. Delayed reoxygenation after maximal isometric handgrip exercise in high oxidative capacity muscle. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;89:34-41.
  • Liu F, Luo Q, G. Xu, Li P. Noninvasive detection of changes in skeletal muscle oxygenation during incremental exercise with near-infrared spectroscopy. Proc SPIE. 2003;5254:573-9.
  • McCully KK, Iotti S, Kendrick K, Wang Z, Posner JD, Leigh J JR, Chance B. Simultaneous in vivo measurements of HbO2 saturation and PCr kinetics after exercise in normal humans. J Appl Physiol. 1994;77:5–10.
  • Neary JP. Application of near infrared spectroscopy to exercise sports science. Canadian J Appl Physiol. 2004; 29:488-503.
  • Pereira MIR, Gomes PSC, Bhambhani YN. A brief review of the use of near infrared spectroscopy with particular interest in resistance exercise. Sports Med. 2007;37:615-24.
  • Praagman M, Veeger HE, Chadwick EK, Colier WN, van der Helm FC. Muscle oxygen consumption, determined by NIRS, in relation to external force and EMG. J Biomech. 2003;36(7):905-912.
  • Praagman M, Chadwick EK, van der Helm FC, Veeger HE. The relationship between two different mechanical cost functions and muscle oxygen consumption. J Biomech. 2006;39(4):758-765.
  • Quaresima V, Lepanto R, Ferrari M. The use of near infrared spectroscopy in sports medicine. J Sport Med Phys Fitness. 2003;43:1-13.
  • Ryan TE, Erickson ML, Brizendine JT, Young HJ, McCully KK. Noninvasive evaluation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity with near-infrared spectroscopy: correcting for blood volume changes. J Appl Physiol. 2012;113(2):175-183.
  • Sako T, Hamaoka T, Higuchi H, Kurosawa Y, Katsumura T. Validity of NIR spectroscopy for quantitatively measuring muscle oxidative metabolic rate in exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2001;90: 338-44.
  • Shadgan B, Reid WD, Gharakhanlou R, Stothers L, Macnab A. Wireless near-infrared spectroscopy of skeletal muscle oxygenation and hemodynamics during exercise and ischemia. Spectroscopy 2009;23:233-41.
  • van Beekvelt MCP, Colier WNJM, Wevers RA. Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal
    muscle. J Appl Physiol. 2001b;90:511–19.
  • van Beekvelt MCP, van Baziel CP, van Engelen GM, Wevers RA, Colier WNJM. In vivo quantitative near-infrared spectroscopy in skeletal muscle during incremental isometric handgrip exercise. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2002a;22:210-7.
  • van Beekvelt MCP, Wevers RA, van Engelen BG, Colier WNJM. Muscle tissue oxygenation as a functional tool in the follow up of dermatomyositis, J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002b;73:93–94.


  • Hoshi Y, Chen SJ. New dimensions of cognitive neuroscience research with near-infrared spectroscopy: Free motion neuroimaging studies In: Progress in Brain Mapping Research. Ed FJ Chen Nova Science, New York 2006:205-229.
  • Macnab AJ, Gagnon RE, Gagnon FA, LeBlanc JG. NIRS monitoring of brain and spinal cord – detection of adverse intraoperative events. Spectroscopy. 2003;17:483-90.
  • Tachtsidis I, Tisdall M, Leung TS, Cooper CE, Delpy DT, Smith M, Elwell CE. Investigation of in vivo measurement of cerebral cytochrome-c-oxidase redox
    changes using near-infrared spectroscopy in patients with orthostatic hypotension. Physiol Meas. 2007;28:199-211.
  • Wickramasinghe YA, Livera LN, Spencer SA, Rolfe P, Thorniley MS. Plethysmographic validation of near infrared spectroscopic monitoring of cerebral blood volume. Arch Dis Child. 1992;67:407-11.


  • Kahraman S, Kayali H, Atabey C, Acar F, Gocmen S. The accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy in detection of subdural and epidural hematomas. J Trauma. 2006;61:1480–3.
  • Kirkpatrick PJ, Lam J, Al-Rawi P, Smielewski P, Czosnyka M. Defining thresholds for critical ischemia by using near-infrared spectroscopy in the adult brain. J Neurosurg. 1997;89,:389–94.

Plastic Surgery

  • Cross KM, Leonardi L, Payette JR et al. Clinical utilization of near-infrared spectroscopy devices for burn depth assessment. Wo™und Repair Regen. 2007;15:332-40.
  • Scheufler O, Exner K, Andresen R. Investigation of TRAM flap oxygenation and perfusion by near-infrared reflection spectroscopy and color-coded duplex sonography. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;113:141-52.
  • Sowa MG, Leonardi L, Payette JR, Fish JS, Mantsch HH. Near infrared spectroscopic assessment of hemodynamic changes in the early post-burn period. Burns. 2001;27:241-9.
  • Sowa MG, Leonardi L, Payette JR, Cross KM, Gomez M, Fish JS. Classification of burn injuries using near-infrared spectroscopy. J Biomed Opt. 2006;11:054002.


  • Cooper CE, Springett R. Measurement of cytochrome oxidase and mitochondrial energetics by near-infrared spectroscopy. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1997;352:669-76.
  • Hamaoka T, Iwane H, Shimomitsu T, et al. Noninvasive mea- sures of oxidative metabolism on working human muscles by near-infrared spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol 1996; 81: 1410-7.
  • Hamaoka T, McCully KK, Quaresima V, Yamamoto Y, Chance B. Near-infrared spectroscopy imaging for monitoring muscle oxygenation and oxidative metabolism in healthy and diseased humans. J Biomed Optics. 2007;12:062105.
  • Harel F, Olamaei N, Ngo Q, Dupuis J, Khairy P. Arterial flow measurements during reactive hyperemia using NIRS Physiol Meas. 2008;29:033–40.
  • MacDonald MJ, Tarnopolsky MA, Green HJ, Hughson RL. Comparison of femoral blood gases and muscle near-infrared spectroscopy at exercise onset in humans. J Appl Physiol. 1999;86:687-93.
  • Moalla W, Dupont G, Berthoin S, Ahmaidi S. Respiratory muscle Deoxygenation and ventilatory threshold assessments using near infrared spectroscopy in children. Int J Sports Med. 2005;26:576-82.
  • Suzuki S, Takasaki S, Ozaki T, Kobayashi Y. A tissue oxygenation monitor using NIR spatially resolved spectroscopy, Proc. SPIE 1999;3597:582–92.
  • van Beekvelt MCP, Orbon K, van Engelen BGM, Wevers RA, Colier WNJM. NIR spectroscopic measurement of local muscle metabolism during rhythmic, sustained, and intermittent handgrip exercise. Proc SPIE. 2003;5138:35.
  • Yu G, Durduran T, Lech G, Zhou C, Chance B, Mohler ER 3rd, Yodh AG. Timedependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies. J Biomed Opt. 2005;10:24-7.

Orthopedics / Musculoskeletal Medicine

  • Allart E, Olivier N, Hovart H, Thevenon A, Tiffreau V. Evaluation of muscle oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy in patients with Becker muscular dystrophy. Neuromuscul Disord. 2012;22(8):720-7.
  • Brunnekreef JJ, Oosterhof J, Thijssen D, Colier WNJM, van Uden CJT. Forearm blood flow and oxygen consumption in patients with bilateral repetitive strain injury measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2006;26:178–184.
  • Garr JL, Gentilello LM, Cole PA. Monitoring for compartmental syndrome using nearinfrared spectroscopy: a noninvasive continuous transcutaneous monitoring technique. J Trauma. 1999;46:613-8.
  • Gentilello LM, Sanzone A, Wang L, Liu PY, Robinson L. Near-infrared spectroscopy versus compartment pressure for the diagnosis of lower extremity compartmental syndrome using electromyography-determined measurements of neuromuscular function. J Trauma. 2001;51:1-8.
  • Giannotti G, Cohn SM, Brown M. Utility of near-infrared spectroscopy in the diagnosis of lower extremity compartment syndrome. J Trauma Inj Infec Critic Care. 2000;48:396-401.
  • Kankaanpää M, Colier WNJM, Taimela S, Anders C, Airaksinen O,Kokko-Aro S, Hänninen O. Back extensor muscle oxygenation and fatigability in healthy subjects and low back pain patients during dynamic back extension exertion. Pathophysiology 2005;12:267–273.
  • Kim JG, Lee J, Roe J, Tromberg BJ, Brenner M, Walters TJ. Hemodynamic changes in rat leg muscles during tourniquet-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury observed by near-infrared spectroscopy. Physiol Meas 2009;30:529-40.
  • Shadgan B, Menon M, O’Brien PJ, Reid WD. Diagnostic Techniques in Acute Compartment Syndrome of the leg. J Orthop Trauma. 2008a;22:581-7.
  • Shadgan B, Menon M, Sanders D, Berry G, Martin C Jr, Duffy P, Stephen D, O'Brien PJ. Current thinking about acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity. Canadian J of Surg. 2010c;53:329-34.
  • Shadgan B, Reid WD, Harris L, Power S, Jafari S, O’Brien PJ. “Monitoring of tourniquet – induced skeletal muscle injury by near-infrared spectroscopy during orthopedic trauma surgery”. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 2012;17(8):81408-1. doi:10.1117/1.JBO.17.8.081408.
  • Tobias JD, Hoernschemeyer DG. Near-infrared spectroscopy identifies compartment syndrome in an infant. J Pediatr Orthop. 2007;27:311-3.
  • van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, van Engelen BG. Quantitative measurement of oxygen consumption and forearm blood flow in patients with mitochondrial myopathies. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999a;471:313-9.
  • van Beekvelt MC, van Engelen BG, Wevers RA, Colier WN. Quantitative near-infrared spectroscopy discriminates between mitochondrial myopathies and normal muscle. Ann Neurol. 1999b;46:667-70.
  • van den Brand JG, Verleisdonk EJ, van der Werken C. Near infrared spectroscopy in the diagnosis of chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32:452-6.

Respiratory Medicine

  • Shadgan B, Reid WD, Gharakhanlou R, Stothers L, Macnab A. Wireless near-infrared spectroscopy of skeletal muscle oxygenation and hemodynamics during exercise and ischemia. Spectroscopy 2009;23:233-41.
  • Terakado S, Takeuchi T, Takeshi M, Sato H, Nishioka N, Fujieda Y, Kobayashi R, Ibukiyama C. Early occurrence of respiratory muscle deoxygenation assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy during leg exercise in patients with chronic heart failure. Jpn Circ J. 1999;63,97-103.


  • Mitsuta H, Ohdan H, Fudaba Y, Irei T, Tashiro H, Itamoto T, Asahara T. Near-infrared spectroscopic analysis of hemodynamics and mitochondrial redox in right lobe grafts in living-donor liver transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2006;6:797-805.


  • Colier WN, Froeling FM, de Vries JD, Oeseburg B. Measurement of the blood supply to the abdominal testis by means of near infrared spectroscopy. Eur Urol 1995; 27(2): 160-6.
  • Guevara R. Stothers L, Macnab, A. Algorithm construction methodology for diagnostic classification of near-infrared spectroscopy data. Spectroscopy 25 (2011) 1–11.
  • Guevara R, Stothers L, Macnab AJ. Mathematical modeling methodology for generation of a diagnostic algorithm using near-infrared data. Spectroscopy. 2011; 25, 1-11.
  • Macnab AJ, Shadgan B, Stothers L. “    Bladder anatomy physiology and pathophysiology: Elements that suit near infrared spectroscopic evaluation of voiding dysfunction”. Biomedical Spectroscopy & Imaging, 2012:1(3);223–235. doi:10.3233/BSI-2012-0020.
  • Macnab AJ, Stothers L, Shadgan B. “Monitoring detrusor oxygenation and hemodynamics non-invasively during dysfunctional voiding”. Advances in Urology, vol. 2012, Article ID 676303, 8 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/676303.
  • Macnab AJ, Shadgan B, Stothers L. “The evolution of wireless near infrared spectroscopy applications in urology and rationale for clinical use”. Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy. 2012;20:57-73. doi:10.5489/cuaj.11060.
  • Macnab A, Shadgan B, Stothers L. “Ambulant monitoring of bladder oxygenation and hemodynamics using wireless near-infrared spectroscopy”. Canadian Urological Association Journal, 2012;24:1-7. doi:10.5489/cuaj.11060.
  • Shadgan B, Stothers L, Macnab A. A Transvaginal Probe for Near Infrared Spectroscopic Monitoring of the Bladder Detrusor Muscle and Urethral Sphincter. Spectroscopy. 2008;22:429-436.
  • Shadgan B, Afshar K, Stothers L, Macnab A. Near-infrared spectroscopy of the bladder: a new technique for studying lower urinary tract function in health and disease. Proc SPIE. 2010; Vol. 7548, 75480U:doi:10.1117/12.841066.
  • Shadgan B, Macnab, Stothers L. “Optical diagnosis of interstitial cystitis / painful bladder syndrome”. Proc. SPIE 856510 (2013). doi:10.1117/12.1000235.
  • Shadgan B, Macnab A, Nigro M, Stothers L. “Monitoring of lower urinary tract function in patients with spinal cord injury using near infrared spectroscopy”. Proc. SPIE 8207, 820717 (2012). doi:10.1117/12.906051.
  • Shadgan B, Macnab A, Stothers L. “Re: Concordance of near infrared Spectroscopy with pressure flow studies in men with lower urinary tract symptoms”. Journal of Urology, 2012 Jan;187(1):359-60; author reply 360-1. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2011.09.022.
  • Stothers L, Shadgan B, Macnab A. Urologic Applications of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). Canadian J of Urol. 2008;15:4399-409.
  • Stothers L, Shadgan B, Macnab AJ, “    Near-infrared spectroscopy of the detrusor during urodynamics with simultaneous ultrasound measurements of bladder dimensions and position”. Biomedical Spectroscopy & Imaging, 2012:1(2);137–145. 10.3233/BSI-2012-0012.

Vascular Medicine

  • Kragelj R, Jarm T, Erjavec T, Presern-Strukelj M, Miklavcic D. Parameters of postocclusive reactive hyperemia measured by near infrared spectroscopy in patients with peripheral vascular disease and in healthy volunteers. Ann Biomed Eng 2001;29:311-20.
  • Kooijman, HM, Hopman, MT, Colier, WNJM, van der Vliet, JA and Oeseburg, B. Near infrared spectroscopy for noninvasive assessment of claudication. J Surg Res. 1997;72(1):1-7.
  • Malagoni AM, Felisatti M, Mandini S, Mascoli F, Manfredini R, Basaglia N, Zamboni P, Manfredini F. Resting muscle oxygen consumption by near-infrared spectroscopy in peripheral arterial disease: A parameter to be considered in a clinical setting? Angiology. 2010;61(6):530-6.
  • Manfredini F, Malagoni AM, Felisatti M, Mandini S, Mascoli F, Manfredini R, Basaglia N, Zamboni P. A dynamic objective evaluation of peripheral arterial disease by near-infrared spectroscopy. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2009;38(4):441-448.
  • Manfredini F, Malagoni AM, Mandini S, Felisatti M, Mascoli F, Basaglia N, Manfredini R, Mikhailidis DP, Zamboni P. Near-infrared spectroscopy assessment following exercise training in patients with intermittent claudication and in untrained healthy participants. Vasc Endovascular Surg. 2012;46(4):315-24.
  • Nakayama M, Iwasaki S, Ichinose H. Intraoperative acute lower extremity ischemia detected by near-infrared spectroscopy. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2001;15:624-5.